I was working on a project that had well over 200 layers, and I was just so tired that I couldn't figure out how to name the layers and ended up having a near mental snap at trying to find this one layer amongst the mess I had created. But I messed around and found a shortcut that I couldn't believe isn't shouted from the hilltops.
With the Select tool selected (shortcut: v), control click over what you are trying to edit:
I have the layers in groups, so this is the most efficient way to chose the layer that I need. I can pick the one I want from the list. (it can work if you have the layers in groups or not - super helpful!)
Again, with the Select tool (v), Command (Mac) + Click and you'll be taken directly to the layer which the item you clicked is on.
If you continue to hit CMD+CLICK, you can go through all the options for that area (like, if you have a background layer, then a large item, then another layer, you can cycle through all of these with this shortcut).
This can save so much time going through multiple layers when you either don't label the layers, or when you get a file and none of the layers are labelled.
[I have Photoshop CS6 on MAC. Some of the shortcuts I will try to put in Windows buttons as well, but if someone who has Windows could check these for me and let me know, I'll update here! Thanks greatly!!]